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Home: Indian Government


Indian Parliament

Country name
Conventional long form Republic of India
Conventional short form India
Government type Federal Republic
Capital New Delhi
Administrative divisions 28 states and 7 union territories*; Andaman and Nicobar Islands*, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chandigarh*, Chhattisgarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli*, Daman and Diu*, Delhi*, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Lakshadweep*, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Orissa, Pondicherry*, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal.
Independence 15 August 1947 (from UK)
National holiday Republic Day, 26 January (1950), Independence Day 15 August (1947)
Constitution formed on 26 January 1950
Legal system Based on English common law; Limited judicial review of legislative acts, Accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations.
Suffrage 18 years of age, Universal
Executive branch
Chief of state President Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam (since 26 July 2002)
Vice President Bhairon Singh Shekhawat (since 19 August 2002)
For President President of India is elected by an electoral college consisting of elected members of both houses of Parliament and the legislatures of the states for a five-year term; election last held NA July 2002 (next to be held 18 July 2007).
For Vice President Vice prsident is elected by both houses of Parliament for a five-year term; election last held 12 August 2002 (next to be held NA August 2007);
For Prime Minister Prime minister is elected by parliamentary members of the majority party following legislative elections; election last held 3 October 1999 (next to be held NA October 2004)
Head of government Prime Minister Manmohan Singh
Cabinet Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister.
Election Results
Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam Elected president; percent of electoral college vote - 89.6%;
Bhairon Singh Shekhawat Elected vice president; percent of Parliament vote - 59.8%;
Manmohan Singh Elected prime minister; percent of vote - NA%
Legislative branch Bicameral Parliament or Sansad consists of the Council of States or Rajya Sabha (a body consisting of not more than 250 members, up to 12 of which are appointed by the president, the remainder are chosen by the elected members of the state and territorial assemblies; members serve six-year terms) and the People's Assembly or Lok Sabha (545 seats; 543 elected by popular vote, 2 appointed by the president; members serve five-year terms)
Elections (People's Assembly) last held in April 2004 (next to be held NA 2009)
Election Results (2004) Seats by party - BJP alliance 185, Congress (I) 220, Other's 137
Judicial branch Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president and remain in office until they reach the age of 65)
Political parties and leaders All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam or AIADMK [C. Jayalalitha JAYARAM]; All India Forward Bloc or AIFB, [D. BISWAS, general secretary]; Asom Gana Parishad [Brindaban GOSWAMI]; Bahujan Samaj Party or BSP [MAYAWATI]; Bharatiya Janata Party or BJP [Venkaiah NAIDU]; Biju Janata Dal or BJD [Naveen PATNAIK]; Communist Party of India or CPI [Ardhendu Bhushan BARDHAN]; Communist Party of India/Marxist-Leninist or CPI/ML [Dipankar BHATTACHARYA]; Congress (I) Party [Sonia GANDHI]; Dravida Munnetra Kazagham or DMK (a regional party in Tamil Nadu) [M. KARUNANIDHI]; Indian National League [Suliaman SAITH]; Janata Dal (Secular) [H. D. Deve GOWDA]; Janata Dal (United) or JDU [Sharad YADAV]; Kerala Congress (Mani faction) [K. M. MANI]; Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam or MDMK [VAIKO]; Muslim League [G. M. BANATWALA]; Nationalist Congress Party or NCP [Sharad PAWAR]; Rashtriya Janata Dal or RJD [Laloo Prasad YADAV]; Revolutionary Socialist Party or RSP [Abani ROY]; Samajwadi Party or SP [Mulayam Singh YADAV]; Shiromani Akali Dal [G. S. TOHRA]; Shiv Sena [Bal THACKERAY]; Tamil Maanila Congress [G. K. VASAN]; Telugu Desam Party or TDP [Chandrababu NAIDU]; Trinamool Congress [Mamata BANERJEE]
Political pressure groups and leaders Numerous religious or militant/chauvinistic organizations, including Vishwa Hindu Parishad, Bajrang Dal, and Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh; various separatist groups seeking greater communal and/or regional autonomy, including the All Parties Hurriyat Conference.


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